Coalitions also testify before committees. Strong party discipline in Canada has insulated policy makers from public opinion Petry and Mendelsohn ; Blais et al. I counted chapters as separate observations, but if the same witness appeared twice, I counted this as one observation. Controversially, over 30 members of the House did not attend the vote, the majority of whom were Liberals who had voted against legalizing same-sex marriage in
Third, Canada has a highly centralised federal policy-making capacity which, as Rayside 32 argues, has been beneficial for SSM proponents in Canada. In the end, the motion was narrowly rejected by a vote of McCombs and Shaw argue that the media is most likely the only means by which the public, which does not participate in day-to-day politics and therefore is not aware of new political developments, receives information about political events. Compared to many European countries, Canadian support for gay marriage was considerably lower. First, although Canadians were more against than they were in favour of gay marriage, overall, they remained divided even when the act was passed in June Therefore, it is no surprise that interest groups spend time collecting, packaging and framing information. The addition of a fourth question considerably delayed the opening of the court reference until well after the June general election, raising accusations of stalling. As provincial governments and courts began to recognise SSM, increased pressure was placed on the Supreme Court and federal government to act. In its hearings that began in October , the Supreme Court of Canada accused the Government of using the court for other goals when the Government declined to appeal rulings that altered the definition of marriage in several provinces. Provincial legislation[ edit ] An odd proviso to the post-ruling status was that, until a formal change of the provincial Solemnization of Marriage Act, the Minister of Justice still required the terms "husband and wife" to be used by Justices of the Peace in any wedding. The author analyses party documents, interest group testimony, media statements and public opinion data. G and Nova Scotia A. The same language that had been passed in was brought to a free vote, with members asked to vote for or against the definition of marriage as "the union of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others. I suggest that this gap in issue salience served to facilitate the legalisation of same-sex marriage SSM. Due to the highly centralised federal government, and favourable provincial court and government positions on SSM, the Canadian political system has limited entry points for anti-gay marriage organisations, especially the conservative Christian right. Standing Committees are permanent committees and receive their mandate either from Standing Orders, by an Order of Reference from the House, or from legislation. Archived from the original on In order to measure the ability of organisations to influence the course of the debate on SSM, I used both testimony and media statements issued by organisations found in Canada Newswire, www. Shortly afterwards, following warnings of further legal action by the couples' lawyer, the policy was changed to remove that requirement. Same-Sex Marriage reference question. Articles about gay issues that did not include discussion of gay marriage were not counted. The Government's decision was announced immediately following the court's answer in the Reference re: In the US, the morality frame has been very successful. Usually, witnesses make a statement and then are questioned by committee members for more information on committee proceedings, see Marleau and Montpetit. The composition of the committee roughly reflects the composition of the House of Commons. A news report from CTV on May 31, , showed that a growing number of Conservatives were wary about re-opening the debate on same-sex marriage.
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