The treaty of proved a beneficial arrangement for the East India Company as they gained access to Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula r. According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana , a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana.
During the Rebellion also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny , the majority of the East India Company's troops were recruited from both the people and nobility of Awadh. In , after remaining the capital of Oudh since , Lucknow, with a population of ,, was merged into the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful returns while the territory acted as a buffer state. Roundly defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, he was forced to pay heavy penalties and surrender parts of his territory. Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place. To the east lies Barabanki , to the west Unnao , to the south Raebareli , while to the north lie the Sitapur and Hardoi. Situated in the middle of the Indus-Gangetic Plain , the city is surrounded by rural towns and villages: According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana , a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana. Today, the ruins of the Residency and the Shaheed Smarak offer an insight into Lucknow's role in the events of In , the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British and was forced to abdicate. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula r. It later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region. Upon Indian independence in , the United Provinces were reorganised into the state of Uttar Pradesh, and Lucknow remained its capital. They were, however, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Maratha Empire and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. The name changed to Lakhanavati, then Lakhnauti and finally Lakhnau. Awadh was placed under a chief commissioner — Sir Henry Lawrence. In the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined; then in , the title of chief commissioner was dropped with the formation of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh , although Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders sought asylum in Nepal. Lucknow city is located in a seismic zone III. Etymology[ edit ] "Lucknow" is the anglicised spelling of the local pronunciation "Lakhnau". However, the Dalit movement believes that Lakhan Pasi, a dalit ruler, was the settler of the city and is named after him. Occasionally, Lucknow experiences colder winter spells than places like Shimla and Mussoorie which are situated way high up in the Himalayas. The city became North India's cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. It is built of identical 2. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan , also known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed Nizam of Awadh in and established his court in Faizabad , near Lucknow. The settlement came to be known as Lakhanpur or Lachhmanpur by the 11th century, and later, Lucknow.
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