The discussion of women's careers includes a review of the literature on harassment as well as case studies of sex segregation within the legal and medical professions. Maume Much research has examined the impact of occupational segregation on the gender gap in wages. This research clearly implies that men and women are sorted into dissimilar career tracks.
We agree with Buchmann and Charles and Tomaskovic-Devey and Skaggs that organizational and institutional factors, including the labor process itself, frame the contours within which labor market outcomes are negotiated. The results support the notion that women in male-dominated occupations do not move up the career ladder, but rather are pressured to move out of these positions. He then develops a theory of sex segregation that stresses the enduring operation of social control processes that constrain women's career opportunities thoughout the life cycle. Later chapters consider aspirations, education, and careers. The discussion of women's careers includes a review of the literature on harassment as well as case studies of sex segregation within the legal and medical professions. The article concludes with a call for additional research on the relationship between gender dynamics in the work setting and individual career paths. A chapter on reconciling economic and sociological perspectives on discrimination is followed by the conclusion, which discusses comparable work and other possible remedies. Does this mobility imply the existence of equal opportunity for women? His findings indicate remarkable rates of mobility between male-dominated, sex-neutral, and female-dominated fields on the part of individual women. In the presence of controls, percentage of males in the occupation was positively related to men's chances of receiving a wage promotion. For women, occupational segregation positively influenced movement to joblessness. We do not regard this as problematic, however, since associations at the individual level imply associations at the aggregate level. A relevant supply-side argument suggests that women learn gender-appropriate aspirations in the socialization process Shu and Marini , though empirical support for women's choices as an explanation for occupational gender segregation is mixed see, e. Jacobs Abstract Using large national samples of women studied over time to assess stability and change in the sex typing of career aspirations, college majors, and occupations, the author attempts to determine at what point during the life cycle women are tracked into women's jobs. Information on the percentage of males working in the respondent's occupation was merged into the PSID. Unfortunately, the few studies on the career impacts of occupational segregation are inconclusive because of reliance on anecdotal evidence, research done in a single firm or in the public sector, and problems in measuring career mobility. This research clearly implies that men and women are sorted into dissimilar career tracks. The author first places sex segregation in a historical and comparative context and critically assesses theories of segregation. The evidence suggests the contrary, because while individual mobility is common, change in the structure of sex segregation is slow. Maume Much research has examined the impact of occupational segregation on the gender gap in wages.
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